20 Oct 2010
Position statement on health and biodiversity
The following is the text of a position statement by the COHAB Initiative Secretariat which we have circulated at CBD COP10 this week. It deals specifically with the issue of co-operation with the World Health Organisation, COHAB and other organisations, which was mandated under CBD COP9 Decision IX/27:
Position Statement of the COHAB Initiative Secretariat with regard to the draft text open for discussion in relation to Item 4.9(a),
Cooperation with other conventions and international organizations and initiatives, engagement of stakeholders, including business and biodiversity, cities and biodiversity, and South/South cooperation
In 1998 in Geneva, the World Health Assembly adopted the World Health Declaration, outlining a global “Health for All” policy for the 21st Century. This was a global commitment to strengthen health systems towards implementing the ideal of universal primary healthcare, and a commitment to address emerging health threats supported by appropriate levels of investment. Since then, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and a rapidly increasing body of scientific data, show that the continuing degradation of global ecosystems and associated loss of biodiversity are significantly increasing risks to human health on many fronts, from emerging infectious diseases to deepening nutrition insecurity; loss of medicinal resources; increased risk of natural disaster; weakening of resources required for disaster relief and recovery; loss of genetic resources of value to medical science; loss of community “sense of place”; greater social dislocation and mental illness. Biodiversity loss threatens the realisation of the basic human rights to security and a healthful life, and it represents a direct challenge to the delivery of “Health for All”. In light of these growing concerns, we must ask the questions: why is the health sector not heavily involved in biodiversity discussions at the global level, or more widely active in development of biodiversity strategies at local and national levels? And why does the investment of resources to address anticipated future health crises not include support for conservation of critical ecosystem goods and services?
The World Health Organisation has recognised the value of biodiversity to health and well-being. WHO was involved in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, calls for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity used in traditional medicine, and monitors animal health as a sentinel of potential human health risks. However, this has not translated into co-operation on health and biodiversity at strategic policy levels, and in many countries public awareness of the health benefits of biodiversity is low. These are problems which prevent effective mainstreaming of biodiversity into a sector which sits at the core of national policies and planning, and limits support for practical partnerships on the ground. But there are many areas where both sectors can come together and share resources to work towards similar goals. Perhaps the most important area for co-operation is climate change. The WHO recognises climate change as a direct threat to human health. Many of the anticipated health threats – including new pest and disease outbreaks and certain disaster risks – will come about through climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems. Partnership between the health and biodiversity communities on these issues would seem logical and necessary, yet there is no programme of work in place for co-operation between CBD and WHO on this key issue. The situation is broadly similar for issues of water, nutrition, wildlife health and traditional medicinal knowledge.
Sustainable health systems are a requirement for sustainable development, but cannot be achieved unless we halt the loss of biodiversity. These issues are of great importance to the revised strategy for the Convention which is before this Conference of Parties here in Nagoya, with regard to awareness, with regard to national accounts, with regard to economic impacts, and in particular to indicators and investment in conservation actions. Furthermore, the negotiations relating to the protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing bear particular significance for the issue of neglected tropical diseases, which affect a disproportionate number of indigenous and local communities, and will require greater involvement with the WHO.
The Secretariat to the CBD, UNDP, FAO, UNESCO and other IGOs as well as many NGOs have been active in raising the issue of health at previous COPs and in reaching out to the health sector. This includes the work carried out by the Secretariat in partnership with the COHAB Initiative on the International Conferences on Health and Biodiversity, the publication of the book “Sustaining Life” with the Centre for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School, and work carried out by the Secretariat and the COHAB Initiative in response to COP9 decision IX/27 subsection 9. Many COHAB Partners around the world are also active in linking health and biodiversity in research and at community level. However, the biodiversity crisis is still not on the agenda of global health policy. Specific action is needed to bring biodiversity into the realm of the World Health Assembly, which is the governing body of the World Health Organisation, and to foster practical partnerships to mainstream the new strategic plan of the CBD into the strategies of health sector.